JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, vol.59, no.1, pp.57-81, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Bioceramics are a fast-growing materials group, which are widely used in orthopedics, maxillofacial, dental, and reconstructive surgeries. They are produced using raw materials either from synthetic or natural sources. As naturally originated resources, the bones of sheep and cows are used after converting to calcium phosphates. Human-originated sources in the past were obtained from human cadaver bones, however now-a-days this has been discontinued. On the other hand, the "golden standard" in the reconstruction surgery has been using patients own bones, -i.e., autogenous bones, which heal better than other alternatives. Besides natural products, synthetic materials are produced from a range of inorganic raw and natural materials based on marine sources, such as corals, and other marine-derived materials (i.e., seashells, nacre). These are used to produce bioceramics and hence implants, devices, and bone grafts. Although during the last four decades a number of excellent books and book chapters have been published, no comprehensive review has been yet reported to cover the available marine materials and to indicate the related work and corresponding references to allow for both medical and ceramic scientists to access directly and open new avenues for further research on marine structures and their applications in orthopedic, maxillofacial, and reconstructive surgery areas. Hence, this review covers the general marine structures, their locations and availability in different countries and, current research on production methods of these unique structures that are difficult to fabricate synthetically. The authors are confident that this comprehensive review will be an excellent source not only for the ceramists, but also for the medical scientists.