© 2021 by Turkish Thoracic Society.OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is characterized by chronic respiratory infection. The role of immunodeficiency in this disease is poorly studied in relation to clinical indices. The primary aim of this study was to determine the frequency of these neglected altered immune status by evaluating immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subsets, complement levels, and neutrophil function, and to assess its relationship with clinical parameters in adult patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 74 (30 men and 44 women with a mean age of 47±17 years) adult patients with stable NCFB were enrolled in this study. The bronchiectasis severity index (BSI) and FACED (F:FEV1, A: Age, C: Chronic colonization, E: Extension, D: Dyspnea) scores were assessed. Peripheral blood samples were collected for the detection of total IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgG subclasses and C3 and C4 levels. The counts of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16/56 expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophil oxidative function were evaluated. RESULTS: In the study population, BSI and FACED severity index scores increased with longer duration of the disease (p=0.01 and p=0.040, respectively). Of the 74 patients, 27 (37%) showed humoral aberrations. The number of male patients were higher in this group (p=0.03). High serum total IgE levels were associated with high scores in BSI (moderate-severe group versus mild group, p=0.030). Patients with bronchiectasis demonstrated lower CD3+ T cell count, lower CD4+ T helper cell percentage, and lower CD4+ T cell count (p=0.031, p=0.030, p=0.029, respectively) than healthy subjects. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage and count of CD16/56+ natural killer (NK) cells and the number of exacerbations within the past year (r=-0.230, p=0.049 and r=-0.264, p=0.023, respectively). CONCLUSION: Humoral aberrations in adult patients with NCFB were found to be frequent. IgE levels were related to high scores for disease severity indices. Furthermore, patients with low percentage and counts of NK cells had higher rates of exacerbations. These results emphasize the importance of immune function assessment in adult patients with NCFB.