Objective The aim of this study was to investigate temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and associated risk factors. Methods This study was conducted using 212 university students. Based on the Fonseca anamnestic index, the population was divided into two groups: those with TMD and those without TMD. The two groups were compared in terms of global body posture, craniohorizontal and craniovertebral angles, neck and temporomandibular joint range of motion, stress level, and sleep quality. Results Stress level, sleep quality, and left cervical rotation were found to have statistical differences between the groups (p = 0.00, 0.00, and 0.046, respectively). Sleep quality and stress level were found to be important risk factors for the presence of TMD (p = 0.017 and 0.00, respectively). Discussion In the prevention and treatment of TMD, a holistic approach that evaluates mechanical factors and psychosocial factors should be adopted.