Revalorization of cellulosic fiber extracted from the waste stem of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L. (cauliflower) by characterizing for potential composite applications


International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.266, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 266
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2024.131086
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Cellulose, Characterization, Natural fiber, Revalorization, Sustainability, Waste
  • Marmara University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates a protocol for extracting and characterizing fibers obtained from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) stem agricultural waste, exploring its suitability for composite applications. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L. (BOVBL), commonly known as cauliflower, was comprehensively characterized for the first time, with its fiber extracted from plant waste stems. BOVBL fiber, subjected to microbial degradation, exhibited properties typical of natural fibers, with a density of 1.47 g/cm3 and a composition of 50.09 % cellulose, 19.7 % hemicellulose, and 22.3 % lignin. XPS analysis showed that the surface structure of the fiber consisted of carbon (64.37 %) and oxygen (22.36 %) due to cellulose. The crystalline index is calculated as 57.32 % indicating a highly organized molecular arrangement. SEM images depicted a rough surface with hexagonal and rectangular forms, enhancing resin penetration for improved composite adhesion. The thermal analysis demonstrated stability up to 324.38 °C, promising suitability for composite heat processing. The results of the single fiber test (tensile strength, E-modulus, and elongation at break) were assessed by using Weibull distribution analysis. This investigation provides suggestions for the potential applications of organic waste leftovers as a new, environmentally friendly material for fiber-reinforced polymer composites aligning with circular economy and sustainability through the utilization of agricultural waste in the future.